Essex record office online catalogue
Those held by The National Archives are predominantly schedules of arrears from 1634-1635.
Analysing them can provide useful insights into pre-Civil War politics.
The majority of the surviving documents are from 1662-16-1674 when the tax was administered directly by royal officials rather than private tax collectors. The Centre for Hearth Tax Research has produced some selected indexes of names which can be downloaded. They contain: – the names of individual householders (sometimes with their status or title) – the number of chargeable hearths, often with the amount payable and occasionally comments- potentially names or number of those exempt They contain: – the names and assessments of people who were exempt in a given area, providing useful details to supplement assessments- exemptees included: those too poor to contribute to poor and church rates, or whose property was worth less than 20 shillings/ year Search: – by county – also by place name (parish or hundred) for the following counties: Bedfordshire, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, Essex, Hertfordshire, London, Middlesex, Norfolk, Suffolk and Warwickshire From the mid 13th century until the Reformation the tenth was the standard fractional levy.
The 1291 assessment for the tenth collected became the basis of all clerical taxation until the Reformation.
Early subsidies were granted at different rates, often with different thresholds meaning records vary greatly.
The 15 subsidies had the lowest thresholds, and produced particularly detailed and full lists of taxpayers, large numbers of which survive in E 179.
Ship money, introduced in 1634, has few surviving records.In 1534, under the Act of First Fruits and Tenths, a permanent tenth was collected annually from the clergy.This resulted in a new valuation called the Valor Ecclesiasticus.The account rolls in E 359 and E 360 contain details of the overall sums collected for a particular tax, and although they rarely include the names of any individual taxpayers, they do give details of the final amounts raised from particular counties, cities, boroughs and other taxation areas.E 115 and E 179 contain many certificates of residence which were drawn up to reduce the risk of double charging.